Pourquoi faut-il saler l'eau des pâtes ?

La question

L'usage courant veut que l'on sale l'eau des pâtes avant la cuisson. Les mythes urbains véhiculent  moultes réponses, souvent contradictoires, parfois fausses, quant à la question de l'utilité du sel dans l'eau de cuisson. Parmi ces idées:
-> le sel fait chauffer l'eau plus rapidement.
-> le sel élève le point d'ébullition et permet donc de cuire plus rapidement les pâtes.
-> l'eau regagnera plus vite la température perdue par l'introduction des pâtes.
Au vu de la multitude de réponses qu'il est possible de trouver sur les forums, la question prends toute sa pertinence: pourquoi faut-il saler l'eau des pâtes?
pates

La réponse

Tout de go, voici la réponse à cette question existentielle: l'ajout de sel dans l'eau de cuisson des pâtes modifie très légèrement le temps et la température d'ébullition de l'eau: celle-ci sera très légèrement plus chaude et mettra un tout petit peu plus de temps à bouillir. Pourtant, ces changements sont tellement minimes que l'ajout de sel dans l'eau de cuisson des pâtes n'a aucun but en rapport avec tout cela. Son seul but? Le goût, très certainement!
 
Pour les fans de physique-chimie ou encore pour les sceptiques, voici la preuve en calcul:
 
Considérons la formule suivante permettant de déterminer la quantité d'énergie nécessaire pour chauffer un corps :    Q=m.c.Δt 
Q: Quantité de chaleur: la quantité d'énergie à fournir nécessaire pour augmenter la température de Dt.
m: masse de la matière à chauffer.
c: capacité thermique massique de la matière considérée: la quantité d'énergie à fournir pour augmenter de un degré une unité de masse de la matière.
Δt: l'écart de température à obtenir.
 
Ainsi, pour porter à ébullition 1L d'eau de 80C°, c'est à dire pour passer de l'eau du robinet à 20C° environ jusqu'à ébullition à 100C°, il faut calculer Q pour m=1 kg, c=4186 J.kg-1.K-1 et Dt=100-20=80. On obtient alors: Q=334880 Joules.
 
L'ajout de sel dans l'eau transforme la formule en: Q=(m1.c1 + m2.c2).Δt
m1 et c1 représente les paramètres pour l'eau et m2 et c2 sont les paramètres associés au sel NaCl (pour plus de précisions, ces deux derniers paramètres se décomposent eux-mêmes en deux pour les ions Na+ et Cl- issus de la dissolution du sel dans l'eau). Ces deux derniers paramètres étant non nuls, il est évident, et ceci constitue une démonstration par A+B, qu'il faut apporter plus d'énergie pour chauffer 1L d'eau salée que pour 1L d'eau douce.
 
Pour les moins fans de physique, résumons la chose: 1L d'eau salée, c'est plus de matière qu'1L d'eau douce, donc par une formule de physique, il apparait qu'il faille plus d'énergie pour le chauffer.
 
Pour deux plaques électriques diffusant la même quantité d'énergie, il devient évident qu'il faille plus de temps pour chauffer de l'eau salée que de l'eau douce!
 
En revanche, l'ajout de sel augmente la température d'ébullition de l'eau. A nouveau, offrons une petite formule à nos amis les physiciens:
ΔTeb=Keb.m
ΔTeb: l'augmentation de la température d'ébullition par rapport au solvant pur: Teb[eau salé]-Teb[eau pure].
Keb: constante molale d'élevation de la température d'ébullition ou constante de proportionnalité en K.m-1.
m: molalité en mole.kg-1.
Il devient possible de calculer la température d'ébullition d'une solution de 500g d'eau pure dans laquelle est dissoute une quantité de 15 g de sel pur NaCl (chlorure de sodium, de masse molaire 58,5 g mol-1).
nombre de moles NaCl: 15/58,5 = 0,2564 moles,
molalité: 0,2564 mol/0,5 kg = 0,5128 moles,
d'où ΔTeb = (0,512 x 0,5128) = 0,26 °C,
On obtient ainsi un température d'ébullition normale de cette solution de (100°C + 0,26) = 100,26°C. (conditions idéales, avec un solvant pur)
 
Au final, on retrouve bien au fil de ses calculs les résultats présentés en début d'article.
 
En résumé...
 
Ajouter du sel dans l'eau des pâtes augmente la température d'ébullition de l'eau de quelques dixièmes de degrés seulement et demande un peu plus d'énergie pour chauffer l'eau, donc légèrement plus de temps. Que des inconvénients qui n'expliquent donc pas pourquoi l'on sale l'eau des pâtes... sauf pour le goût!

Pour aller plus loin...

- Cuissons des pâtes (site Barilla)
- Chimie: molécules, matières, métamorphoses, Peter ATKINS, Loretta Jones
 
 
Lien retour vers la boite à Pourquoi
Votre note : Aucun(e) Moyenne : 4.4 (8 votes)

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